In the 1920’s, the archaeologists began to excavate the mounds of the Harappa, on the banks of river Ravi in Punjab, and Mohen-jo-daro in Sind.
HARAPPAN CIVILISATION OR THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION
IT’S A NATION OR PEOPLE THAT SHARE A COMMON CULTURE, COMMON LAWS, COMMON ECONOMY AND A COMMON FAITH OR RELIGION
BROADLY DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS — THE CITADEL AND THE LOWER TOWN
THE CITADEL WAS BUILT ON A RAISED GROUND AND HAD MASSIVE WALLS. IT HOUSED IMPORTANT STRUCTURES LIKE PUBLIC BATHS, GRANARIES AND TOWN HALLS.
THE GREAT BATH
THE GREAT BATH AT MOHEN-JO-DARO IS A GREAT EXAMPLE OF THE ENGINEERING SKILLS OF THE INDUS VALLEY PEOPLE.
THE INNER WALLS WERE TREATED TO PREVENT SEEPAGE.
STAIRS DESCENDING INTO THE BATH WERE USED FOR CLEANING IT. EVEN CHANGING ROOMS WERE FOUND AROUND THE BATH.
THE GRANARY WAS THE LARGEST BUILDING OF MOHENJODARO.HARAPPA HAD AS MANY AS 6 GRANARIES.CIRCULAR BRICK PLATFORMS, MOST PROBABLY USED FOR THRESHING WERE FOUND NEAR THESE GRANARIES.
THE LOWER TOWN
HOUSES WERE OF 1 OR 2 STOREY HIGH AND MADE OF BAKED BRICKS ALONG NARROW STREET LANES.EVERY HOUSE HAD TWO OR MORE ROOMS WITH SMALL WINDOWS, A BATHROOM,A KITCHEN,A COURTYARD AND A WELL.
Seems that they had some kind of organisation which took care of sanitation, regulated trade, collected taxes in the form of grains and maintained law and order
They worshipped nature in the form of animals, birds and trees….the humped bull and the peepal tree was held sacred.
Mother goddess was also worshipped. Seals bearing the three headed figure of a male god with close resemblance to Shiva have also been found. No temples were identified among the remains.
They believed in life after death and thus buried their dead often in huge burial urns along with food, ornaments and articles used by them in their daily life.