2% SOLID AS ICE
97.4% IS IN OCEANS & SEAS, i.e., SALINE
0.6% IS FRESH WATER
1.98% IN ICE CAPS & GLACIERS
0.61% IS GROUND WATER
0.01% IS AVAILABLE FOR CONSUMPTIONS
SOURCES OF WATER
The water Vapour in the atmosphere condense to form Clouds and fall as Rain. Rain water is the purest form of Water.
OCEANS & SEAS
This water contains a large amount of dissolved salts and thus is SALINE and unfit for consumption.
RIVERS, LAKES, STREAMS & PONDS
This water is formed by melting of SNOW on MOUNTAINS & from RAIN. It is fit for consumption.
Rain water falls into Oceans, Seas, Rivers, Ponds, Lakes, Streams etc.And some of the Rain Water falls on Land, and gets collected under the Ground.The water so collected under the ground is called ground water.The Level of Water under the ground is called the water table.
Water continuously moves from the Earth to the Atmosphere and From the Atmosphere back to the Earth again. This circulation of water in nature is called Water Cycle.
STEPS OF WATER CYCLE
Water is converted into Water Vapor by many processes like Evaporation, Transpiration etc.
The Water vapor rises up, becomes cooler and condenses to form tiny droplets which float in the AIR as CLOUDS and later form large drops and fall down as rain.
WATER AS A DISASTER
Soil dries up completely becomes hard and begins to crack and eventually becomes infertile.
Water Table goes down i.e., ground water becomes scarce.
Due to infertile soil and scarcity of water, vegetation of the drought affected area is lost.
The water level in wells, ponds etc. goes down and may even dry up and the aquatic life gets completely lost.
Farmers depend on agriculture and thus are most badly affected.
Many humans as well as animals die of dehydration and thirst.
Floods raise the water level of Rivers, Lakes, Ponds causing them to overflow the limits and submerging Villages and Cities.
Potable water and food supply get affected causing a number of Deaths, Diseases and Destruction .
Flood water damages the crops, buildings and dams.
It carries away animals and many other objects with it.
Flood water washes away the top soil thus reducing the fertility of the land.
Ways to Conserve Water …
One of the methods of conserving water is to collect rain water and store it for later use. This is called Rain water harvesting and the idea behind it is “CATCH WATER WHERE IT FALLS”.
ROOF TOP RAIN WATER HARVESTING
Rain water is collected from the roof top and allowed to go into a storage tank through pipes.
Rain water can also be directed through Pipes from the roof top to the storage pipe in the ground. From here it seeps into the soil to recharge the ground water.
Rain water from the Roadside goes directly into the ground through pits, Trenches, recharge shafts etc. This water can be used later.